Questões de Inglês - Reading/Writing
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Questão 7 6026864UNICAMP 1° Fase 2022
Gaslighting is a form of psychological abuse where a person or group makes someone question their sanity, perception of reality, or memories. People experiencing gaslighting often feel confused, anxious, and unable to trust themselves. The term gaslighting derives from the 1938 play and 1944 film “Gaslight”, in which a husband manipulates his wife into thinking she has a mental illness by dimming their gas-fueled lights and telling her she is hallucinating. While anyone can experience gaslighting, it is especially common in intimate relationships and in social interactions where there is an imbalance of power. A person who is on the receiving end of this behavior is experiencing abuse.
(Disponível em https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/signs-of-gaslig hting. Acessado em 02/06/2021.)
Assinale o depoimento feminino que ilustra a prática discutida no texto.
(Alternativas adaptadas de https://brasil.elpais.com/brasil/2017/09/15/internacio nal/1505472042_655999.html; https://revistamarieclaire.globo.com/Comportame nto/noticia/2019/03; https://emais.estadao.com.br/noticias/comportamento,voca bulario-feminista-conheca-dez-termos-importantes-para-o-movimento,70 002805 322; https://www.justificando.com/2017/11/16/meu-cerebro-minhas-ideias/.)
Questão 15 6312539FCMSCSP 2022
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
There is no agent of ecological imperialism more ferocious than the wild pig. Wherever Europeans invaded, from the Americas to Australia, so did their pigs, many of which escaped into the countryside to wreak havoc. The beasts tear through native plants and animals, they spread disease, they destroy crops, and they reconstruct whole ecosystems in their wake. They’re not so much pests as they are chaos embodied.
Now add climate change to the wild pig’s résumé of destruction. In their never-ending search for food, the pigs root through soils, churning the dirt like a farmer tills fields. Scientists already knew, to some extent, that this releases the carbon that’s locked in the soil, but researchers in Australia, New Zealand, and the US have now calculated how much soil wild pigs may be disturbing worldwide. The carbon dioxide emissions that they produce annually, the authors concluded, equal that of more than a million cars.
It’s yet another piece of an increasingly worrisome puzzle, showing how modification of the land has — in this case, inadvertently — exacerbated climate change. “Anytime you disturb soil, you’re causing emissions,” says University of Queensland ecologist Christopher O’Bryan, lead author on a new paper describing the research in the journal Global Change Biology. “When you till soil for agriculture, for example, or you have widespread land-use change — urbanization, forest loss.”
Given their domination of whole landscapes, pigs had to be making things worse, the researchers knew, but no one had modeled it worldwide. “We started to realize there’s a big gap at the global scale looking at this question,” O’Bryan adds.
(Matt Simon. www.wired.com, 19.07.2021. Adaptado.)
Considerando o contexto do terceiro parágrafo, a relação estabelecida entre as alterações no solo e a liberação de dióxido de carbono é, respectivamente, de
Questão 11 6305998EMESCAM 2022
INSTRUCTION: Read the text to answer question.
Your brain’s roughly 86 billion interconnected neurons endow it with the ability to understand the world, plan actions, and solve problems. Doing so requires the brain to incorporate all available information. By combining information from all of your body’s senses, the brain paints a picture of the world around you. Then, using inference and instinct, the brain makes sense of the picture it assembles.
The brain both makes and uses emotions, which are value judgments that help the brain respond effectively to events. It associates the pictures it assembles with feelings to form memories. Our brains store those memories, learn from them, and use that knowledge in the future. By combining all of these tools with imagination, your brain can predict future events, calculate your next move, and devise plans for future opportunities. Consciousness requires that all of these activities function normally. In other words, your brain’s trillions of connections work together to understand the world, to think about the future, and to create … you.
Available at: https://www.brainfacts.org/the-brain-facts-book. Accessed on: Aug 20, 2021.
The sentence that best summarizes the text is
Questão 32 5942964FGV-RJ 2° Semestre 2021
Texto para a pergunta.
Life has never been easy for the Persian Gulf’s migrant workers. Though they are around half of the region’s population and are essential to its economy, the locals give them little respect. Coming from poorer countries such as India, Pakistan, and Nepal, most work long hours for wages [salários] that are high compared with salaries back home but low by any other standard. They care for Kuwaiti children, nurse sick Saudis, and build Dubai’s skyscrapers. When their workday is done, many are crammed into Spartan dormitories by their employers. Whether visiting workers have lived in the Gulf for two months or two decades, they are deemed [considerados, julgados] to be “temporary” and are left out of the social contract. Most citizens treat them as a subservient underclass.
The outbreak [erupção, surto] of Covid-19 has made life even harder for migrants, who probably account for the majority of the recorded infections in the Gulf and are also suffering the most from the resulting economic problems. Many are locked down [confinados rigidamente na quarantena], out of work, and unable to go home because of restrictions on travel. Some struggle to afford food. Governments should take better care of them. This is not only humane, it is also practical. If the Gulf states do not start treating their guests with more compassion, they are likely to find that their outbreaks last longer and that their economies recover more slowly.
So far, the pandemic has revealed more bigotry [intolerância] than benevolence. A Member of Parliament in Kuwait wants to “purify” the country of illegal workers. “Put them in the desert,” says a famous Kuwaiti actress. A viral video in Bahrain featured a man complaining of migrants receiving medical treatment next to citizens – even though half the nurses in Bahrain come from abroad [do exterior]. In hospitals across the region foreigners are on the front line fighting the virus.
Discrimination is bad enough, but the dormitories where migrants live are incubators for Covid-19. With four or more to a room, there is no space for social distancing. At a big labor camp in Qatar one infection quickly became hundreds. Far from the Gulf, Singapore, which treats migrant workers somewhat better, thought it had the virus under control until it broke out [eclodiu] in their dormitories. Now infections are rising fast and the authorities have had to extend restrictions on work and travel.
Neglecting migrants hurts citizens, too. The dormitory outbreaks stand a good chance of spreading to the permanent population, lengthening lockdowns. Xenophobes see this as yet another reason to banish foreigners. But countries such as India, which have their hands full, are not cooperating with efforts to return their unemployed, potentially ailing [doentes] expatriates.
The Gulf states are finally taking steps to impede the virus in migrant areas. Some have launched mass inspections and are testing those migrants with symptoms. Temporary housing has been set up to allow social distancing. Most countries are treating Covid-19 patients, including migrants, for free. Saudi Arabia has also released dozens of migrants held [detidos] for minor immigration offenses [contravenções], so that prisons do not become plague factories [fábricas de pestilência]. The United Arab Emirates is automatically renewing the paperwork for migrant workers so that they don’t find themselves on the wrong side of the law just because they are locked down.
That is all to the good, but more needs to be done. Some migrants are still working – building stadiums for the World Cup in 2022 or facilities for the World Expo next year. Employers should be obliged to guarantee their safety. Many migrants cannot work, though, and states should care for them, too. Gulf countries can afford to pay a portion of their wages during the outbreak. That will not only ensure that they do not go hungry – it will mean that someone is there to turn the lights back on when businesses start to open up again.
Adapted from The Economist, April 25, 2020.
In paragraph 2, the sentence “That is not only humane, it is also practical” most likely refers to which of the following?
Questão 20 5267679CESMAC 1° Dia 2021.2
Read the text below and answer the following question based on it.
Why smelling good could come with a cost to health
About 4,000 chemicals are currently used to scent products, but you won’t find any of them listed on a label. Fragrance formulations are considered a “trade secret” and therefore protected from disclosure – even to regulators or manufacturers. Instead, one word, fragrance, appears on ingredients lists for countless cosmetics, personal care and cleaning products. A single scent may contain anywhere from 50 to 300 distinct chemicals.
Three-quarters of the toxic chemicals detected in a test of 140 products came from fragrance, reported a 2018 BCPP study of personal care and cleaning brands. The chemicals identified were linked to chronic health issues, including cancer.
Besides common reactions to fragrance – about 35% of people report migraines or respiratory problems because of fragrance. More than 1,200 fragrance chemicals currently in use have been flagged as potential or known “chemicals of concern”. These include seven carcinogens, 15 chemicals prohibited from use in cosmetics in the EU and others cited in various international warning lists. Endocrine disrupters, which mimic human hormones, are of particular concern to many researchers and advocates, as they can have effects in the tiniest doses.
Trying to avoid fragrance chemicals is perhaps one of the trickiest modern consumer challenges. Even products labeled as unscented could have some fragrance to mask the smell of other chemicals. Watchdogs also caution that even products claiming to be “natural” or “organic” could still be harboring harmful fragrances.
Adaptado de: https://www.theguardian.com/usnews/2019/may/23/fragrance-perfume-personal-cleaning-productshealth-issues Acessado em 05 de junho de 2021.
According to the text
Questão 17 4442876UNICAMP 2° Dia 2021
OUR WORD OF THE YEAR FOR 2019 IS THEY
English lacks a gender-neutral singular pronoun to correspond with singular pronouns like everyone or someone, and as a consequence they has been used for this purpose for over 600 years. Recently though, they has also been used to refer to a person whose gender identity is nonbinary, a sense that is increasingly common in published text, social media, and in daily personal interactions between English speakers. There's no doubt that its use is established in the English language, which is why it was added to the Merriam-Webster dictionary in September of 2019.
Nonbinary they was also prominent in the news in 2019. Congresswoman Pramila Jayapal (WA) revealed in April that her child is gender-nonconforming and uses they. And the American Psychological Association’s blog officially recommended that singular they be preferred in professional writing over “he or she” when the reference is to a person whose gender is unknown or to a person who prefers they.
(Adaptado de https://www.merriam-webster.com/words-at-play/word-of-the-year/ they. Acessado em 29/04/2020.)
De acordo com o texto, o fato de uma palavra simples, como o pronome “they”, ter sido escolhida como a palavra do ano de 2019 se justifica pela necessidade de
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