Questões de Inglês - Reading/Writing
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Questão 15 6312539FCMSCSP 2022
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
There is no agent of ecological imperialism more ferocious than the wild pig. Wherever Europeans invaded, from the Americas to Australia, so did their pigs, many of which escaped into the countryside to wreak havoc. The beasts tear through native plants and animals, they spread disease, they destroy crops, and they reconstruct whole ecosystems in their wake. They’re not so much pests as they are chaos embodied.
Now add climate change to the wild pig’s résumé of destruction. In their never-ending search for food, the pigs root through soils, churning the dirt like a farmer tills fields. Scientists already knew, to some extent, that this releases the carbon that’s locked in the soil, but researchers in Australia, New Zealand, and the US have now calculated how much soil wild pigs may be disturbing worldwide. The carbon dioxide emissions that they produce annually, the authors concluded, equal that of more than a million cars.
It’s yet another piece of an increasingly worrisome puzzle, showing how modification of the land has — in this case, inadvertently — exacerbated climate change. “Anytime you disturb soil, you’re causing emissions,” says University of Queensland ecologist Christopher O’Bryan, lead author on a new paper describing the research in the journal Global Change Biology. “When you till soil for agriculture, for example, or you have widespread land-use change — urbanization, forest loss.”
Given their domination of whole landscapes, pigs had to be making things worse, the researchers knew, but no one had modeled it worldwide. “We started to realize there’s a big gap at the global scale looking at this question,” O’Bryan adds.
(Matt Simon. www.wired.com, 19.07.2021. Adaptado.)
Considerando o contexto do terceiro parágrafo, a relação estabelecida entre as alterações no solo e a liberação de dióxido de carbono é, respectivamente, de
Questão 26 6264581UNESP 2022/1
Examine os gráficos e leia o texto para responder a questão.
Educated Americans live longer, as others die younger
catching up faliing behind
united states, average life expectance at age 25
A 25-year-old American with a university degree can expect to live almost a decade longer than a contemporary who dropped out of high school. Although researchers have long known that the rich live longer than the poor, this education gap is less well documented — and is especially marked in rich countries. And whereas the average American’s expected span has been flat in recent years — and, strikingly, even fell between 2015 and 2017 — that of the one-third with a bachelor’s degree has continued to lengthen.
This disparity in life expectancy is growing, according to new research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using data from nearly 50m death certificates filed between 1990 and 2018, Anne Case and Angus Deaton of Princeton University analysed differences in life expectancy by sex, race, ethnicity and education. They found that the lifespans of those with and without a bachelor’s degree started to diverge in the 1990s and 2000s. This gap grew even wider in the 2010s as the life expectancy of degree-holders continued to rise while that of other Americans got shorter.
What is the link between schooling and longevity? Some argue that better-educated people develop healthier lifestyles: each additional year of study reduces the chances of being a smoker and of being overweight. The better-educated earn more, which in turn is associated with greater health. Ms Case and Mr Deaton argue that changes in labour markets, including the rise of automation and increased demand for highly-educated workers, coupled with the rising costs of employer-provided health care, have depressed the supply of well-paid jobs for those without a degree. This may be contributing to higher rates of alcohol and drug use, suicide and other “deaths of despair”.
According to the third paragraph, better-educated people
Questão 31 6307860EEAR 2022
Read the text and answer question.
Insomnia is the most common of all sleep complaints. Almost everyone has occasional sleepless nights, perhaps due to stress, heartburn or drinking too much caffeine or alcohol. Insomnia is a lack of sleep that occurs on a regular or frequent basis, often for no apparent reason.
How much sleep is enough varies. Although 7 1/2 hours of sleep is about average, some people do fine on 4 or 5 hours of sleep. Other people need 9 or 10 hours a night.
Inability to get a good night’s sleep can affect not only your energy level and mood but your health as well because sleep helps bolster your immune system. Fatigue, at any age, leads to diminished mental alertness and concentration. Lack of sleep is linked to accidents both on the road and on the job.
About one out of three people have insomnia sometime in their life. Sleeplessness may be temporary or chronic. You don’t necessarily have to live with sleepless nights. Some simple changes in your daily routine and habits may result in better sleep.
According to the text, we can NOT infer that:
Questão 11 6305998EMESCAM 2022
INSTRUCTION: Read the text to answer question.
Your brain’s roughly 86 billion interconnected neurons endow it with the ability to understand the world, plan actions, and solve problems. Doing so requires the brain to incorporate all available information. By combining information from all of your body’s senses, the brain paints a picture of the world around you. Then, using inference and instinct, the brain makes sense of the picture it assembles.
The brain both makes and uses emotions, which are value judgments that help the brain respond effectively to events. It associates the pictures it assembles with feelings to form memories. Our brains store those memories, learn from them, and use that knowledge in the future. By combining all of these tools with imagination, your brain can predict future events, calculate your next move, and devise plans for future opportunities. Consciousness requires that all of these activities function normally. In other words, your brain’s trillions of connections work together to understand the world, to think about the future, and to create … you.
Available at: https://www.brainfacts.org/the-brain-facts-book. Accessed on: Aug 20, 2021.
The sentence that best summarizes the text is
Questão 20 6264225UNESP 2022/1
Art which is based on images of mass consumer culture. Pop art was initially regarded as a reaction from abstract expressionism because its exponents brought back figural imagery and made use of impersonal handling. It was seen as a descendant of Dada because it debunked the seriousness of the art world and embraced the use or reproduction of commonplace subjects. Comic books, advertisements, packaging, and images from television and the cinema were all part of the iconography of the movement.
(Ian Chilvers e John Glaves-Smith (orgs.). Oxford Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art, 2009. Adaptado.)
Uma obra representativa do movimento artístico retratado no texto está reproduzida em:
Questão 7 6026864UNICAMP 1° Fase 2022
Gaslighting is a form of psychological abuse where a person or group makes someone question their sanity, perception of reality, or memories. People experiencing gaslighting often feel confused, anxious, and unable to trust themselves. The term gaslighting derives from the 1938 play and 1944 film “Gaslight”, in which a husband manipulates his wife into thinking she has a mental illness by dimming their gas-fueled lights and telling her she is hallucinating. While anyone can experience gaslighting, it is especially common in intimate relationships and in social interactions where there is an imbalance of power. A person who is on the receiving end of this behavior is experiencing abuse.
(Disponível em https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/signs-of-gaslig hting. Acessado em 02/06/2021.)
Assinale o depoimento feminino que ilustra a prática discutida no texto.
(Alternativas adaptadas de https://brasil.elpais.com/brasil/2017/09/15/internacio nal/1505472042_655999.html; https://revistamarieclaire.globo.com/Comportame nto/noticia/2019/03; https://emais.estadao.com.br/noticias/comportamento,voca bulario-feminista-conheca-dez-termos-importantes-para-o-movimento,70 002805 322; https://www.justificando.com/2017/11/16/meu-cerebro-minhas-ideias/.)
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